Taekwondo Poomsae (Pattern)
INTRODUCTORY POOMSAE (Grade 10)
Poomsae for Grade 10 was introducted by Singapore Taekwondo Federation in April 2009.
PRELIMINARY POOMSAE (White 9)
Poomsae for Grade 9 was introducted by Singapore Taekwondo Federation in April 2009.
TAEGEUK IL JANG (Grade 8)
Taegeuk IL Jang
Taegeuk 1 Jang represents the symbol of “Keon”, one of the 8 Kwaes (divination signs), which means the heaven and “yang”. As the “Keon” symbolizes the beginning of the creation of all things in the universe, so does the Taegeuk 1 jang in the training of Taekwondo.
This poomsae is charaterized by its easiness in practicing, largely consisting of alking and basic actions, such as arae-makki, momtong-makki, momtong-jireugi, and ap-chagi. The 8th Kup-grade trainees practice this poomsae.
TAEGEUK E JANG (Grade 7)
Taeguek E Jang
Taegeuk 2 Jang symbolizes the “Tae”, one of the 8 divination signs, which signifies the inner firmness and the outer softness.An introduction of the olguljireugi is a new development of Taegeuk poomsae. The apchagi actions appear more frequently than in Taegeuk 1 Jang. The 7th Kup-grade trainees practice this poomsae.
TAEGEUK SAM JANG (Grade 6)
Taeguek Sam Jang
Taegeuk 3 Jang symbolizes the “Ree”, one of the 8 divination signs, which represents “hot and bright”. This is to encou-rage the trainees to harbor a sense of justice and ardor for training. A successful accomplishment of this poomsae will give the trainees a promotion to a blue belter. New actions are sonnal mokchigi, sonnal makki and the dwitkubi stance.
This poomsae is characterized by successive makki and jireugi, chagi and continued jireugi. Emphasis is laid on the counterattacks against the opponent’s attack. The 6th Kup-grade trainees can practice this poomsae.
TAEGEUK SA JANG (Grade 5)
Taeguek Sa Jang
Taegeuk 4 Jang symbolizes the “Jin”, one of the 8 divination signs, which represents the thunder meaning great power and dignity. New techniques are sonnal momtongmakki, pyonsonkkeuttzireugi, jebipoom mokchigi, yopchagi, momtong bakkatmakki, deungjumeok olgulapchigi, It is characterized by various movements in preparation for the kyorugi and lots of dwitkubi seogi cases. The 5th Kup-grade trainees practice this poomsae.
TAEGEUK O JANG (Grade 4)
Taeguek O Jang
Taegeuk 5 Jang symbolizes the “Son”, one of the 8 divination signs, which represents the wind, meaning both mighty force and calmness according to its strength and weakness. New movements are mejumeok naeryochigi, palkup dollyo-chigi, palkup pyojeokchigi and such stances as kkoaseogi, wenseogi and oreunseogi. This is characterized by the successive makki such as araemakki and momtongmakki and also the chigi by tumbling after jumping. The 4th Kup grade trainees practice this poomsae.
TAEGEUK YUK JANG (Grade 3)
Taeguek Yuk Jang
Taegeuk 6 Jang symbolizes the “Kam”, one of the 8 divination signs, which represents water, meaning incessant flow and softness. New movements are hansonnal olgul bitureo makki, dollyo-chagi, olgul bakkat-makki, arae hecho makki, and batangson momtong-makki.
One should be careful to make the kicking foot land on the ground correctly after dollyo-chagi and to lower the hand by a palm’s length at the time of delivering a batangson momtong-makki lower than in the palmok-makki. This is practiced by the 3rd Kup-graders.
TAEGEUK CHIL JANG (Grade 2)
Taeguek Chil Jang
Taegeuk 7 Jang symbolizes the “Kan”, one of the 8 divination signs, which represents the mountain, meaning ponderosity and firmness. New movements are sonnal araemakki, batangson kodureomakki, bojumeok kawimakki, mureupchigi, momtong hechomakki, dujumeok jeocho jireugi, arae otkoreo makki, deungjumeok bakkat chigi, pyojeok-chagi, yop-jireugi and such stances as beomseogi and juchumseogi. Smooth connection of movement is important for training. The 2nd Kup-graders practice this poomsae.
TAEGEUK PAL JANG (Grade 1)
Taeguek Pal Jang
Taegeuk 8 Jang symbolizes the “Kon”, one of the 8 divination signs, which represents “Yin” and earth, meaning the root and settlement and also the begining and the end. This is the last of the 8 Taegeuk poomsaes, which may enable the trainees to undergo the Dan(black belt) promotion test. New movements are dubal dangseong apchagi, momtong kodureo bakkatmakki, arae kodureo makki, twiochagi, and palkup dollyochigi. Emphasis must be laid on the accuracy of stepping and the difference between jumping-over kick and dubal-dangsong (alternate jumping kick in the air). The 1st Kup-grade trainees practice this poomsae.
KORYO (1 Dan)
Koryo poomsae symbolizes “seonbae”, which means a learned man, who is characterized by a strong martial spirit as well as a righteous learned man’s spirit. The spirit had been inherited through the ages of Koguryo, Palhae and down to Koryo, which is the background of organizing the Koryo poomsae.
The new techniques appearing in this poomsae are kodeup-chagi, sonnal bakkat-chigi, hansonnal arae-makki, khaljaebi, mureup kkukki, momtong hecho-makki, jumeok pyojeok-jireugi, pyonsonkkeut jeocho-tzireugi, batangson nullo-makki, palkup yop-chagi, mejumeok arae pyojeok-chigi, etc, which only black-belters can practice.
The junbi-seogi is the tongmilgi which requires mental concentration by positioning the hand in between the upper abdomen and the lower abdomen where “sin”(divine) and “jeong”(spirit) converge. The line of poomsae represents the Chinese letter which means “seonbae” or “seonbi”, a learned man or a man of virtue in the Korean language.
KEUMGANG (2 Dan)
Keumgang (meaning diamond) has the significance of “hardness” and “ponderosity”. The Mt. Keumgang on the Korean peninsula, which is regraded as the center of national spirit, and the “Keumgang yoksa” (Kumgang warrior) as named by Buddha, who represents a mightiest warrior, are the background of denominating this poomsae. New techniques introd-uced in this poomsae are batangson teokchigi, hansonnal momtong anmakki, Keumgangmakki, santeulmakki, kheun doltzeogi (large hinge), etc., and the hakdariseogi.
The poomsae line symbolizes a mountain displayed by the Chinese letter. The movements should be powerful and well-balanced so as to befit black-belter’s dignity.
TAEBAEK (3 Dan)
Taebaek is the name of a mountain with the meaning of “bright mountain”, where Tangun, the founder of the nation of Korean people, and the bright mountain symbolizes sacredness of soul and Tangun’s thought of “hongik ingan”(human-itarian ideal).
There are numerous sites known as Taeback, but Mt. Paektu, which has been typically known as the cradle of Korean people, is the background of naming the Taebaek poomsae. New technigues introduced in this poomsae are sonnal arae hechomakki, sonnal opeojapki (grabbing), japhin sonmokppaegi (pulling out the caught wrist), Keumgang momtong-makki, doltzeogi(hinge), etc.
The line of poomsae is like a Chinese letter, which symbolizes the bridge between the Heaven and the earth, signifying human beings founded a nation by the Heaven’s order. The poomsae movements are largely composed of momtongmakki and chigi.
PYONGWON (4 Dan)
“Pyongwon” means a plain which is a vast stretched-out land. It is the source of life for all the creatures and the field where the human beings live their life.
The poomsae Pyongwon was based on the idea of peace and struggle resulting from the principles of origin and use. The new techniques introduced in this poomsae are palkup ollyochigi, olgul kodureo yop-makki, dangkyo teokchigi, meongyechigi, hechosanteulmakki, etc.
The junbiseogi is the moaseogi wenkyopson (left overlapping hands), which requires concentration of force in the lower abdomen, the source of body strength, as the land is the begining and source of human life. The line of poomsae means the origin and transformation of the plain.
SIPJIN (5 Dan)
The word “Sipjin” was derived from the thought of 10 longevity, which advocates there are ten creatures of long life, namely, sun, moon, mountain, water, stone, pine tree, herb of eternal youth, tortoise, deer, and crane. They are two heavenly bodies, 3 natural resources, two plants and 3 animals, all giving human beings faith, hope and love.
The poom-sae Sipjin symbolizes those things. The new techniques introduced in this poomsae are hwangso-makki, sonbadak kodureo makki, bawimilgi (rock pushing), sonnaldeung momtong hechomakki, kklyeolligi (lifting up), chetdarijireugi (fork shape jireugi), sonnal otkoreo araemakki, sonnaldeung momtongmakki, which counts 10. The Chinese letter meaning ten is form of the poomsae line, which signifies an infinite numbering of the decimal system and ceaseless development.
JITAE (6 Dan)
The word “Jitae” means a man standing on the ground with the two feet, looking over the sky. A man on the earth repre-sents the way of struggling for human life, such as kicking, treading and jumping on the ground.
Therefore, the poomsae symbolizes various aspects occurring in the course of human being’s struggle for existence. The new techniques introduced in this poomsae are hansonnal olgul-makki, keumgang momtong-jireugi, anpalmok kodureo makki and mejumeok yop pyojeok-chigi only, and the poomsae line signifies a man standing on the earth to spring up toward the heaven.
CHONKWON (7 Dan)
The word “Chonkwon” means the Heaven’s Great Mighty, which is the origin of all the creature and itself the cosmos.
Its infinite competence signifies the creation, change and completion. Human beings have used the name of Heaven for all principal earthly shapes and meanings because they felt afraid of the Heaven’s mighty. Over 9,000 years ago, the founder of the Korean people, “Chonkwon”, was meant by the heavenly king. He settled down in the heavenly town as the capital near the heavenly sea and heavenly mountain, where the Han people as the heavenly race gave birth to the proper thought and actions from which Taekwondo was originated.
The new techniques introduced in this poomsae are nalgae pyogi (wing opening), sosumjumeok sosumchigi (knuckle protruding fist springing chigi), hwidullomakki (swinging-makki), hwidullo jabadangkigi (swing and drawing), sonnaldeung wesanteul makki, keumgang yopjireugi, taesan-milgi, etc., and a crouched walking manner. The characteristics of movements are large actions and arm actions forming gentle curves, thus symbolizing the greatness of Chonkwon thought.
The poomsae line “T” symbolizes a man coming down from the heaven, submitting to the will of Heaven, being endowed power by the Heaven and worshipping the Heaven, which means the oneness between the Heaven and a human being.
HANSU (8 Dan)
The word “hansu” means water which is the source of substance preserving the life and growing all the creatures.
Hansu symbolizes birth of a life and growth, strongness and weakness, magnanimity, harmony, and adaptablity. Especially, “han” has the various meanings, namely, the name of a country, numerousness, largeness, evenness, long-ness, even the heaven, and the root of everyting among others. Above all, the nature of water characterized by unbre-akability and flexibility, in addition to all of the above significances, is the background of organizing this poomsae.
The new techiniques introduced in this poomsae are sonnaldeung momtong hecho-makki, mejumeok yangyopkuri (both flanks) chigi, kodureo khaljaebi, anpalmok arae pyojeok-makki, sonnal keumgang-makki, etc., and also modumbal as a stance. Actions should be practiced softly like water but continuously like a drop of water gathering to make the ocean.
The poomsae line symbolizes the Chinese letter which means water.
ILYEO (9 Dan)
“Ilyeo” means the thought of a great Buddhist priest of Silla Dynasty, Saint Wonhyo, which is characterized by the philo-sophy of oneness of mind (spirit) and body (material). It teaches that a point, a line or a circle ends up after all in one.
Therefore, the poomsae Ilyeo represents the harmonization of spirit and body, which is the essence of martial art, after a long training of various types of techniques and spiritual cultivation for completion of Taekwondo practice.
The new techniques introduced in this poomsae are sonnal (olgul) makki, wesanteul yopchagi, dusonpyo (two opened hands) bitureo jabadangkigi(twisting and pulling), tiwo yopchagi and the first stance of ogeum (knee back) hakdariseogi.
Junbiseogi is the bojumeok moaseogi (wrapped-up fist moa-seogi), in which, as the last step of poomsae training, two wrapped-up fists are placed in front of the chin, which has the significance of unification and moderation, so that the spiritual energy can flow freely into the body as well as the two hands.
The line of poomsae symbolizes the Buddhist mark (swastika), in commemoration of Saint Wonhyo, which means a state of perfect selflessness in Buddhism where origin, substance and service come into congruity.